Inguinal neuralgia is one of the most common causes of groin/pelvic pain due to damage or irritation of the nerves affecting the pelvis. This is often caused by inadvertent damage or scar tissue from previous operations, especially hernia repairs or pelvic surgery. Rarely does an inguinal neuralgia occur spontaneously. Symptoms often present as numbness, burning over the lower abdomen that can radiate into the scrotum, labia, inner thighs or upper thighs.
Myofascial pain is a chronic condition that affects the fascia, or connective tissue that covers the muscles. Myofascial pain typically presents as a deep aching pain due to inflammation in the body's soft tissues. It can involve either a single muscle, or a muscle group. It is presumed that an injury or overuse to a muscle/muscle group may lead to the development of a trigger point, which in turn can cause pain in other areas. This is known as referred pain. Myofascial pain can be made worse with activity or stress.
Sometimes called degenerative joint disease (DJD), osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common painful condition of the joints. In OA, there is a breakdown in the cartilage covering the ends of the bones where they meet to form a joint and allow movement. As the cartilage wears away, the bones become exposed and rub against each other. The deterioration of cartilage also affects the shape and makeup of the joint so that it no longer functions smoothly.
Symptoms of OA vary, depending on which joint(s) are affected and how severely they are affected. The most common symptoms are stiffness, particularly first thing upon waking up or after a period of rest. The most commonly affected joints are the lower back, hips, knees and feet- but can affect the neck, hands and fingers as well.
Occipital neuralgia is a condition characterized by painful nerves at the back of the head and neck. In most cases, the exact cause is not identified. Causes can include pinching of the occipital nerves as they emerge from the spinal cord due to arthritis, tense muscles or injury to the back of the head/neck. The most common symptom is pain at the scalp at the back of the head.
Phantom Limb Pain Syndrome
Phantom limb pain is the perception of sensations, usually pain, in a limb that has been amputated. Patients with this condition experience the limb as if it were still attached to their body as the brain continues to receive messages from nerves that originally carried nerve impulses from the missing limb. The exact cause of phantom limb pain syndrome is unknown. It is presumed that the sensations are due to the brain's attempt to reorganize sensory information following the amputation. The brain is unable "rewire" itself to adjust to the body's change. Symptoms are most commonly pain, but can include sensations of clothing, or as if the limb were present and moving.
Peripheral Neuropathy/ Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy
Peripheral neuropathy refers to damage of the peripheral nerves, which branch out from the brain and spine to the rest of the body. It typically begins with pain, numbness, tingling, burning or weakness in the feet, legs and/or hands, and may progress to more serious conditions such as ulcers, pain and loss of sensation.
Peripheral neuropathy may develop because of a nerve disease or as a side effect of an illness or medication. Common causes among Americans are diabetes, chemotherapy, chronic alcoholism, multiple sclerosis, and heavy metal toxicity.
DPN is a common serious complication of diabetes, yet can often be prevented or slowed with improved control of blood sugar levels. High blood sugar can injure nerve fibers throughout your body, most often in your feet, legs and hands. Depending on the affected nerves and severity, symptoms of DPN can range from pain and numbness in your extremities, to problems with your eyes, digestive system, urinary tract, blood vessels and heart.
Post Laminectomy Syndrome
Post-laminectomy syndrome is a condition where the patient suffers from persistent pain in the back/neck despite having had a surgery to treat the original pain. A laminectomy is a surgery where part of the vertebra (lamina) that protects the spinal cord is removed, typically to relieve the pressure or decompress on the spinal cord. Very often patients recover with good outcomes.
In some cases, despite performing the laminectomy, patients continue to experience pain. There are a variety of reasons why this may happen. The term "post laminectomy" syndrome encompasses any cause that results in continued pain following back surgery. Post-laminectomy syndrome may result from tissue scarring, a recurrent herniated disc or the presence of a remaining bone fragment near the treatment site. In other cases, it may be caused by continued narrowing of the spinal column, which is called spinal stenosis.