Sacroiliitis is an inflammation of one or both of the sacroiliac joints, which connects the lower spine and pelvis. With sacroiliitis, even the slightest movements of your spine can be extremely uncomfortable or even painful for you.
Sacroiliitis can be difficult to diagnose, and it may be mistaken for other causes of low back pain, including sciatica, herniated disks and strained muscles. Sacroiliitis may be associated with a group of diseases called spondyloarthropathies, which cause inflammatory arthritis of the spine.
Sacroiliitis symptoms may include pain and stiffness in your lower back, thighs or buttocks, pain that worsens with walking because the motion of your hips strains your sacroiliac joints. Pain radiating down your leg, limping, and decreased range of motion.
Shingles (Herpes Zoster) & Post Herpetic Neuralgia (PHN)
Shingles, or herpes zoster, is a painful skin rash caused by the varicella zoster virus. It is a reactivation of the chickenpox virus, varicella, most commonly occurring in older adults and people who have weakened immune systems. Often people will develop a band or stripe of a rash that develops into painful blisters that fill with fluid, then crust over into a scab. Most people who get shingles will get better in 2 to 4 weeks.
However some people can develop postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), which is a nerve pain that persists after the shingles rash has cleared. The pain of PHN affects the area where the shingles rash had occurred and is usually a constant burning pain sensitive to even light touch.
Chronic spasticity is a condition characterized by a persistent tightness or stiffness of particular muscles that the patient cannot control. Depending on which muscles are involved, spasticity may affect movement, walking ability or speech. The problem results from damage within the nervous system that disturbs the communication between the brain and the muscles.
Chronic spasticity is very common in people with cerebral palsy and multiple sclerosis. It may also develop due to a stroke, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord damage, meningitis, encephalitis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and a number of other conditions.
The symptoms of chronic spasticity can vary considerably. Some patients experience only a sensation of tightness in the affected areas, while others may experience severe pain in the muscles and joints and involuntary spasms of the arms or legs. The muscles may become easily fatigued and deformities sometimes develop in the bones or joints.
Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of one or more areas in your spine — most often in your upper (cervical) or lower (lumbar) spine. This narrowing can put pressure on your spinal cord or on the nerves that branch out from the compressed areas. Spinal stenosis can cause pain, numbness, tingling or cramping in your legs, back, neck, shoulders or arms; a loss of sensation in your extremities; and sometimes problems with bladder or bowel function. Spinal stenosis is most commonly caused by osteoarthritis-related bone damage.
Spinal narrowing doesn't always cause problems, but if the narrowed areas compress the spinal cord or spinal nerves, you're likely to develop inflammation of nerves that can cause signs and symptoms. These often start gradually and grow worse over time.
Spondylolisthesis occurs when of the 33 vertebral bones that make up the spinal column slips forward on the adjacent neighboring vertebra. This condition can cause back and leg pain, as well as other symptoms. Spondylolisthesis can gradually cause a deformity of the lower spine, narrowing the spinal canal. This condition is most often due to degenerative/arthritic changes of the spine, but may also be caused by trauma or cancer.
Spondylosis is a general term for age-related wear and tear affecting the joints in the spine. Also known as cervical or lumbar osteoarthritis (OA), this condition usually appears in men and women older than 40 and progresses with age.
As we age, the bones and cartilage that make up our spine gradually deteriorate, sometimes forming irregular bony outgrowths called osteophytes or bone spurs. These changes, which are characteristic of spondylosis, occur in most everyone's spine. If these changes occur in the zygapophyseal joints, it is often referred to as facet arthropathy. Many people with signs of spondylosis on X-rays manage to escape the associated symptoms, which can include pain, stiffness and muscle spasms.
At the other extreme, spondylosis may compress one or more of the spinal nerves exiting the spinal canal through the neural foramen which can cause pain, numbness, tingling or weakness- a condition called radiculitis, or radiculopathy. Bone spurs and other irregularities caused by spondylosis also may reduce the diameter of the canal that houses the spinal cord, which can result in spinal stenosis and possibly myelopathy. Radiculopathy and myelopathy can lead to permanent disability. Fortunately, most adults with spondylosis — nearly 90 percent — will not lose nerve function, even temporarily.
Vertebral Compression Fracture (VCF)
A vertebral compression fracture (VCF) occurs when one or more of the bones that makes up the spinal column, known as a vertebra, collapses. This is typically due to vertical compression that exceeds what the vertebra is able to endure. This is most often due to osteoporosis, but can be caused by trauma and cancer. Symptoms may range from none, to pain & numbness at the site of the VCF, difficulty walking to loss of bowel and bladder control.